世.界.之•窗-比智商、天賦更重要的成功特質grit

工商時報【洪于盈】

什麼是Grit?自從心理學家Angela Duckworth提出grit是比智商、天賦更重要的成功特質後,這個字成為教育界中最熱門的字(buzzword)。這裡指的意志力(grit),是追求長期目標的熱情(passion)與毅力(perseverance);不只是努力1周或1個月,而是持續長達幾年的努力,直到目標實現為止。簡而言之,即使在遭受困境失敗後,這個長期目標依然堅固毫不動搖(steadfast)。值得一提的是,我們可以藉由成長型思維模式(growth mindset)來鍛鍊意志力,例如:尋求協助、嘗試新方法、從挫敗中學習(capitalize on setbacks)等,這些都是靠著後天訓練變得更強壯,幫助我們跳脫天生的限制,往前邁進。

Business Insider reports that "Duckworth credits "(1)grit," a combination of passion and (2)perseverance, for success over intelligence or innate talent. In one of her book's early chapters, Duckworth lays out two equations that show how you get from talent to success:

Talent x effort = skill

Skill x effort = achievement

Duckworth is quick to note that external opportunities, like having a great coach or teacher, matter too. But when it comes to the psychology of success and achievement, effort is huge."

商業內幕報導,Duckworth強調熱情與毅力結合的「意志力」,比智力或者天賦更是成功的關鍵。在她的書中的前幾章,列出了兩個方程式,解釋如何藉由天份達到成功:

天分x努力=技能

技能x努力=成就

Duckworth緊接著指出,要獲得成功、成就,外在機會同樣重要,例如,好的指導教練或老師。但內在心理層面,肯努力的影響至關重大。

Duckworth indicates multiple examples in her book that grittier people reached higher performance. "For instance, she conducted a study that found "grittier" kids ─ those who studied more and competed in more spelling bees ─ were more likely to perform well in the Scripps National Spelling Bee. To be sure, verbal intelligence also mattered, but verbally talented spellers didn't necessarily study or practice more. Similarly, Duckworth found that West Point (3)cadets who scored higher on the grit scale were more likely to stick it out through " (4)Beast Barracks," an intensive seven-week training program." As Duckworth states"Our potential is one thing. What we do with it is quite another."

Duckworth在書中舉出一些案例,意志力較高的人有較好的表現,例如: 她的研究發現,在全美兒童拼字比賽中,意志力強的孩子學得多、參加的拼字競賽多,更容易在全美競賽中勝出。當然,語言天分也很重要,但是比賽中天分高的孩子,不見得會花更多時間學習、練習。類似案例還有,Duckworth發現西點軍校的學生,獲得較高意志力評分者,有更高的機會通過「野獸營」的7周密集訓練課程。Duckworth在書中說:我們的潛力是一回事,我們做什麼又是另外一回事。

In conclusion,"believing in grit is about believing that your personal and professional success is largely in your own hands."

結論是,相信意志力,就是相信個人的成功、事業上的成功,掌握在自己手上。

原文來源:Business Insider

原文標題:A UPenn psychologist says there's one trait more important to success than IQ or talent

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